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Lavani (Marathi: लावणी): is a genre of music popular in Maharashtra. Lavani is a combination of traditional song and dance, which particularly performed to the beats of Dholki, a percussion instrument. Lavani is noted for its powerful rhythm. Lavani has contributed substantially to the development of Marathi folk theatre. In Maharashtra and southern Madhya Pradesh and North Karnataka, it is performed by the female performers wearing nine-yard long saris (nauvari).
According to a tradition, the word Lavani is derived from the word lavanya which means beauty.
Traditionally, this genre of folk dance deals with different and varied subject matters such as society, religion and politics. The songs in ‘Lavani’ are mostly erotic in sentiment and the dialogues tend to be pungent in socio-political satire. Originally, it was used as a form of entertainment and morale booster to the tired soldiers. Lavani Songs, which are sung along with dance, are usually naughty and erotic in nature. It is believed their origin is in the Prakrit Gathas collected by Hala. The Nirguni Lavani (philosophical) and the Shringari Lavani (sensual) are the two types. The devotional music of the Nirguni cult is popular all over Malwa.
The ladies that perform lavani wear a long sari length around 9 metres. They form a bun (juda in Hindi or ambada in marathi) with their hair. They wear heavy jewellery that includes necklace, earrings, payal, kamarpatta (a belt at waist),bangles etc. They usually put a large bindi of dark red color on their forehead. The sari they wear is called nauvari. The sari is Wrapped beautifully and is much more comfortable as compared to other sari types.
Tamasha (Marathi: तमाशा): is a traditional form of Marathi theatre, often with singing and dancing, widely performed by local or travelling theatre groups within the state of Maharashtra, India. It has also been the subject of several Marathi films. Some Hindi movies have also included Tamasha-themed songs, known as Lavanis, in the past.
Traditional Tamasha is influenced by many Indian art forms and draws from such diverse traditions as kaveli, ghazals, Kathak dance, dashavatara, lalit and kirtan. There are two types of Tamasha: dholki bhaari and the older form, sangeet baari which contains more dance and music than drama. In Maharashtra, the Kolhati groups are traditionally associated with the performance of Tamasha.
The word “Tamasha” is originally from Persian, meaning a show or theatrical entertainment of some kind.
The region of Maharashtra, has had a long theatrical tradition, one of the early references was found in the cave inscriptions at Nashik by Gautami Balashri, the mother of the 1st-century Satavahana ruler, Gautamiputra Satakarni. The inscription mentions him organizing Utsava and Samaja, forms of theatrical entertainment for his subjects.
Tamasha acquired a distinct form in late Peshwa period of Maratha Empire, in the 18th century, and incorporated elements of older traditional forms like Dasavatar, Gondhal, Kirtan, and Waghya-murali, part of Khandoba Bhakti Geet, amongst worshippers of the local god Khandoba.
In Maharashtra, there are two types of Tamasha, first is dholaki fadcha Tamasha and the other is sangeet baaricha Tamasha. Dholaki Fadcha tamasha is complete art, which includes song, dance, and theater.